The Best “Outlet” for Energy Efficiency


What is the most energy efficient means to recharge an electrical vehicle? Until 2013, the answer to this question was an educated guess, at best.

In association with the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) VEIC is developing a Technical Reference Manual (TRM) that will help determine the most energy efficient electrical vehicle charging method. Funded by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), the TRM could ultimately be used by utilities to develop incentives for electric vehicle charging equipment.


Having developed the first electrical energy efficiency TRM, VEIC was an excellent match for this project—requiring evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) of level 1 and level 2 charging. Level 1 charging uses a traditional electric outlet, while Level 2 charging uses a 240-volt outlet, like one used by a domestic dryer or electric range.

To develop the transportation TRM, VEIC will gather data, document its findings, and use a screening tool to determine the net societal benefits of each measure. Societal benefits derived through use of the TRM are expected to include carbon reduction, energy efficiency improvements, and the impact of switching from one level to another.

According to Karen Glitman, VEIC’s director of transportation efficiency, “The second TRM, which is scheduled for development next year, will study the vehicles themselves and will highlight differences in efficiency between models.”

Expected Results:

  • Demonstrated differences in charging efficiency between Level 1 and Level 2 charging
  • Information to guide future programs and incentives for energy efficient charging
  • Reduced environmental impact of electric vehicle charging
  • Stronger alignment between electric efficiency and transportation systems and actors